skip to content

Centre of Development Studies

 

Selecting Papers for the MPhil Programme

Out of the four full papers you are required to choose for the MPhil, at least two must be core papers from the list below.

You will choose the other two papers from the remaining core papers and/or the optional papers (two half papers make up one full paper).

Examples of paper choices selection:

  • Two core papers, one optional full paper, two optional half papers
  • Two core papers, two optional full papers
  • Three core papers, two optional half papers

There is also a selection of 'borrowed' papers from other Centres or Departments which you may choose in place of the optional papers we offer. These borrowed papers vary year by year. The Centre Administrator will inform students of which papers they are able to borrow near the start of Michaelmas Term. Permission must be granted prior to confirmation of selection, and some papers may be subject to prerequisites.

Announcements about teaching 2021/2022

All University announcements about teaching plans for the coming academic year can be found on the University's Coronavirus website.

MPhil Core Papers (taught Michaelmas and Lent Terms)

  • Paper 1, Development economics
  • Paper 2, Institutions and development
  • Paper 3, Sociology and politics of development
  • Paper 4, Globalisation and development - will not be offered in 2021/2022

MPhil Optional Papers

Although there may be some variation from year to year, we are currently planning to offer the following papers in 2021-2022.

Full Papers (taught Michaelmas and Lent Terms)

  • Dissertation
  • Paper 15: Human Development and Education
  • Paper 30: Justice and Development
  • Paper 400: The Development of Central Asia and Caucasus

Half Papers (two half papers make one full paper)

  • Paper 10: Development: Perspectives and Debates (Michaelmas Term)
  • Paper 250: Political Economy of Development in Africa (Lent Term)
  • Paper 260: Food, Technology and Development (Lent Term)
  • Paper 270: Protests, Social Movements and Development (Michaelmas Term)
  • Paper 280: Law and Politics in Authoritarian and Developing Countries (Michaelmas Term)
  • Paper 290: Civil Conflict, Political Violence and Development (Lent Term)
  • Paper 310: Finance and Development (Lent Term)
  • Paper 390: Migration, Human Trafficking and Development (Michaelmas Term)

All half papers must be taken with another half paper to make the equivalent of one full paper. Some papers may be subject to prerequisites.

As paper outlines are updated, they will be posted below and should all be available near the beginning of September, the month before the academic year begins. They will also appear in the handbook, which will be sent to all incoming students early-mid September.

(Core) Paper 1: Development Economics

Co-ordinator: Dr Ha-Joon Chang, Dr Natalya Naqvi and Dr Jostein Hauge

Teaching Assistants: TBC

Updated for 2021/22: Development economics is characterised by diversity in many senses. First of all, it is diverse in terms of the subject matter. Anything from household decisions regarding fertility and labour allocation to climate change and global financial architecture can be a subject of research in development economics. It is also diverse in terms of the level of abstraction in discussion. Someone who works on abstract theories of growth has as much legitimate claim to be a "development economist" as does someone who works on the political economy of industrial policy, say, in Thailand or someone who tries to find out exactly why and how workers in, say, Nepal, go and work in Qatar or South Korea. Moreover, development economics is diverse in its methodology, as the field has always included people with differing views of the world - Neo-classicists, Marxists, Structuralists, Institutionalists, Schumpeterians, and so on. And since the subject is directly concerned with the real world, and a very unstable and rapidly changing part of it at that, new issues are constantly coming up. Global value chains (GVCs), conditional cash transfers and migrant remittances are only some of the issues that have become prominent, rightly or wrongly, during the decade or so. Old topics also come back into fashion - inequality, agrarian changes, and develompent banking are the most prominent recent examples.

Assessment is by means of one 3,000 word essay and one 4,000 word essay.

(Core) Paper 2: Institutions and Development

Co-ordinator: Dr Shailaja Fennell

Teaching Assistants: Dr Albert Park and Dr Rekha Bhangaonkar

Updated for 2021/2022: This paper explores the role of institutions in establishing formal and informal rules in social, economic and environmental aspects of development at multiple scales. It places people at the centre of development and examines the relationship between the individual and collective; private and public. Lectures are structured around core themes of historical change, to examine the role of the state and markets through using the key concepts of transaction and transition costs in the Michaelmas term. In the Lent term, lectures are structured around core themes of institutional change, to examine the role of local communities and of international organisations, using the key concepts of institutional design and global agendas.

Assessment is by means of one 3,000 word essay and one 5,000 word essay.

Indicative reading:

  • Chambers, R. 1997. Whose Reality Counts: Putting the Last First. Practical Action.
  • Fennell, S. 2010. Rules, Rubrics and Riches: the interrelationship between the legal reform and international development, Routledge.
  • Hickey, S., Sen, K. and Bukenya, B. (eds.) 2014. The Politics of Inclusive Development: Interrogating the Evidence. Oxford University Press.
  • North, D.C., 1990. Institutions, institutional change & economic performance, Cambridge University Press.
  • Ostrom, E., 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press.
  • Polanyi, K, (1944) 2001. The Great Transformation, The Political and Economic Origins of our time, Beacon press, Boston, 2001 edition
  • World Development Report, 2016. Digital Dividends.
  • World Development Report, 2019. The Changing Nature of Work.
(Core) Paper 3: Sociology and Politics of Development

Co-ordinator: Dr Maha Abdelrahman

Updated for 2021/22: This paper deals with the configuration, practice and politics of power, broadly defined. It explore the social and political contexts of development theory and praxis, the kinds of empirical problems that tend to matter for policy and the efforts to 'practice development'. It interrogates the main actors, institutions and ideas that shape thinking about and doing of development. The paper critically questions the underlying assumptions of what development is, who should benefit, and who is being excluded from develompent, broadly defined. The paper also critically engages with questions about the future of Development as an academic discipline, as a historical project and as a set of policy interventions.

Assessment is by means of a 3,000 essay and a 5,000 word essay.

(Core) Paper 4: Globalisation and Development

Not being offered 2021/2022

What is globalisation? Is it new? What drives it? How has it changed the world? Why does it matter now?

Assembling the specialities of different lecturers, this paper sketches the various processes, actors, practices and structures that underpin the historical and ongoing nature of globalisation, considering its varied impacts on ‘development’ -broadly defined.  Amidst a globe-spanning political economy, we will approach globalisation as a set of processes that can be (and indeed should be?) seen from many perspectives. Here, the material will consider a key selection of some that matter with a particular kind of distinction: empires, profit-seeking firms, migrants, and states -each of which play roles in the dynamic or static patterning that accompanies a given moment.

Through this material we will asks critical questions about what has changed in globalisation, why, how and through what means change has happened. The paper will attend to a series of big questions, concerning itself with structures, patterns and power while also attending to the humanistic ways that people live, work and reproduce or contest global flows. All of this then works a basis for thinking about ‘development’, who shapes it, how and under what conditions.

(Optional Full) Dissertation

One full optional paper may be replaced with a 12000-word dissertation. For more information, click here.

(Optional Full) Paper 15: Human Development and Education

Co-ordinator: Dr Tadashi Hirai and Dr Albert Park

Updated for 2021/2022: Education is one of the key dimensions of human development, but grasping its full meaning and scope is not an easy task. Like development, education is a multidisciplinary field, ranging from the politics and philosophy of education to education policies. This paper covers key issues in the ensuing nexus between education and human development. It covers three areas: (1) human development, (2) political history of development and education, and (3) economic, social and cultural aspects of education and development. Each module explores education within different facets of development. It starts with human development as an alternative to conventional economic growth models. Education is then situated within historical and political contexts in development. It finally moves into an analysis of the role of education in economic, social, and cultural spheres of development. Case studies on this development-education nexus will complement these theory-driven lectures each term to illustrate their practical implications in real-world contexts.

Assessment is by means of two 4,000 word essays.

Indicative reading:

  • Fennell, S. and M. Arnot. (eds.) (2009) Gender education and equality in a global context: conceptual frameworks and policy contexts. London: Routledge.
  • Freire, P. (2018) Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Khôi, L.T. (1976) ‘Aid to education—co-operation or domination?’ Prospects 6(4): 583-94.
  • McCowan, T. and E. Unterhalter. (eds.) (2015) Education and international development. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Mkandawire, T. (2011) ‘Running while others walk: knowledge and the challenge of Africa’s development.’ Africa Development 36(2): 1-36.
  • Nussbaum, M. (2010) Not for profit: why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Packenham, R.A. (1973) Liberal America and the Third World: political development ideas in foreign aid and social science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Sen, A. (1999) Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • UNDP. (1990) Human development report: concept and measurement of human development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

(Optional Full) Paper 30: Justice and Development

Co-ordinator: Professor Barry Rider

Updated for 2021/2022: The paper examines what justice means in the context of sustainable development from a legal perspective. However, no knowledge or experience in the law is necessary for this course. After exploring concepts such as the rule of law, access to justice and legitimacy, the course focuses on a number of topics that are in practical terms important for maintaining sustainable development. These include, for example, the efficacy of legal institutions in developing and particularly smaller states, the threat to stability presented by corruption, economic and organised crime and terrorism, the impact (both positive and negative) on institutions and economies of measures adopted (internationally and domestically) to address these and other threats; governance and corporate social responsibility in the context of multinational enterprises; environmental protection; human rights and the role of international law; exploitation and slavery in the modern world and the practicalities of fashioning and implementing systems that seek to promote and protect integrity and stability.

Assessment is by means of two 4,000-word essays.

Indicative reading:

  • Alston P., ed., Peoples' rights, 2001, Oxford University Press, chs 1, 6.
  • Clayton, M. and Williams A., Social justice, Blackwell, 2004, chs 3, 4, 5 and 12.
  • Cockcroft L., Global Corruption, Money, Power and Ethics in the modern world, IB Tauris, 2012
  • Cohen J., Globalization and Sovereignty, rethinking legality, legitimacy and constitutionality, Cambridge, 2012
  • Dworkin R., Law’s Empire, Hart, 1998
  • Eatwell J. and Taylor, L., Global finance at risk: the case for international regulation, Polity Press, 2000, chs 1, 4, 5 and 6.
  • Fisman R. and Miguel E., Economic Gangsters, Corruption, Violence and the Poverty of Nations, (2008) Princeton
  • Glenny, M., McMafia - seriously organised crime , Vintage, 2009
  • King R. and Kendall G., The state, democracy and globalization, Palgrave, 2004, chs 2, 3, 4, 6 & 7.
  • Kingley D., Civilising Globalisation, Human Rights and the Global Economy, 2010, Cambridge University Press
  • Kerusauskaite, I., Anti-Corruption in International Development, Routledge, 2018, chapters 2, 3 and 5.
  • Rider B. (ed), International Financial Crime, Edward Elgar, 2016
  • Sen A., The Idea of Justice, 2010, Penguin, Pts 1 and 3
  • Shaxson N., Treasure Islands, Tax havens and the men who stole the world, Vintage, 2012
  • Von Arnauld A., Cambridge Handbook of New Human Rights, CUP, 2020.
  • Stern J. and Berger JM., ISIS – The State of Terror, Collins, 2015
  • Stiglitz J., Making Globalisation Work, 2007, Penguin
  • Sharman J.C., The Despot’s Guide to Wealth Management, Cornell University Press 2017
  • Thomas-James D., Offshore Financial Centres and the Law - suspect wealth in British Overseas Territories, Routledge, 202, Chs 2,3 and 7
(Optional Full) Paper 400: Development of Central Asia and the Caucasus

Co-ordinator: Dr Siddharth S. Saxena

Updated for 2021/2022: The Silk Road region has both contemporary and historical relevance when it comes to understanding development in Asia and Eurasia. This paper addresses political, economic, cultural and industrial development in Central Asia, the Caucasus and also broadly in the connected realms of Eurasia. Standard reading of economic and political theories tend to be unsatisfactory in engaging with this vast and dynamic geography. Central Asia has a mystical resonance in the world imagination carved by the writings of the Orientalists and the biographers of the Great Game. Following that, the Soviet period, in contrast to a millennia old ‘globalised’ connectivity of the region, signalled a substantial shift in political and economic systems and focused more on internal development. Region also became part of a larger structure of the apparatus of the Cold War. Relatively recent dissolution of the Soviet Union and emergence of sovereign Central Asian and Caucasus nation-states has again pushed the re-set button. The new resurgence has given rise to high rates of growth in some of the countries, partly fed by discovery of the very large reserves of oil, natural gas and rare-earth metals, together with blooming agricultural production, manufacturing and transport hubs across all countries point to new development configurations in the 21st century. However some of the countries drastically lag behind. Also of interest is how Central Asia and Eurasia is responding to the current changes in global political order and resultant economic implications.

The content of paper is developed as the term proceeds, shaped around the interests of each cohort. Weekly 2-hour lectures are complemented by weekly 2-hour seminars delivered by guest academics and researchers, ambassadors, industry specialists, or representatives of civil society or NGOs with experience in the region.

No previous knowledge of the Central Asia/Eurasia region is necessary to take this option.

Assessment is by means of two 5,000 word essays.

Indicative Reading: 

  • E. Allworth, ed., Central Asia: One Hundred Twenty Years of Russian Rule, rev. ed. (Durham, NC: Duke U. Press, 1989)
  • Thomas Barfield, The Perilious Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China. (Basil Blackwell 1989) 
  • V.V. Barthold and T. Minorsky, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia. ( Brill 1958) 
  • Robert Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. (Cambridge University Press 2002)  
  • Sally Cummings, Understanding Central Asia: Politics and Contested Transformations (Routledge 2012)
  • Nicola Di Cosmo, Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. (Cambridge University Press2002)
  • Dadabaev, Timur. Transcontinental Silk Road Strategies: Comparing China, Japan and South Korea in Uzbekistan. (Routledge 2019)
  • Renee Grousset, The Empires of the Steppe: A History of Central Asia. (Rutgers University Press 1970)
  • Kalra, Prajakti. The Silk Road and the Political Economy of the Mongol Empire / Prajakti Kalra. (Routledge Studies on the Chinese Economy. 2018)
  • Khalid, Adeeb. Islam after Communism : Religion and Politics in Central Asia. ( U of California Press 2007).
  • Khazanov, Wink, Khazanov, Anatoly M., Wink, André, and International Institute of Administrative Sciences. Nomads in the Sedentary World. (Curzon, 2001)
  • Neumann, Iver B., and Einar Wigen. The Steppe Tradition in International Relations : Russians, Turks and European State-building 4000 BCE-2018 CE. ( Cambridge University Press 2018)
  • Pomfret, Richard. "The Central Asian Economies in the Twenty-First Century: Paving a New Silk Road," (Princeton University Press 2019)
  • Soucek, Svat. A History of Inner Asia. (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
(Optional Half) Paper 10: Development: Perspectives and Debates

Coordinator: Prof Bill Hurst

Updated for 2021/22: What makes some countries rich and others poor? Why are some states successful in forging economic development, while others are not? Are there inherent trade-offs between economic growth and democracy, or between development and stability or equality? Are there any universal models countries can apply when seeking development success? These are the sorts of questions that have motivated various analyses and perspectives on the political economy of development. This paper is meant as an overview of the classic foundational perspectives on these questions and the debates between them. 

Assessment is by means of a series of set essays totalling not more than 3,500 words.

(Optional Half) Paper 250: Political Economy of Development in Africa

Coordinator: Dr Jostein Hauge

Updated for 2021/22: 1.3 billion people live in Africa, making it the second most populous continent in the world. Currently this constitutes 17% of the world’s population, a share that is set to keep growing. Yet, Africa’s share of global GDP and global trade both remain around 3%. While some countries in Africa have showcased impressive economic growth since the early 2000s, economic development keeps evading the region at large. Why is this the case? What explains economic development and underdevelopment in Africa? How can economic development be achieved? These questions have been and are still fiercely debated among scholars and policy practitioners, and the political and economic contexts of these questions keep changing. In this paper, we will tackle development issues in Africa from a political economy perspective, focusing on issues of structural/productive transformation in the past and present, and Africa in the changing global economic context (international political economy).

In line with traditions within political economy, the paper adopts a critical and multidisciplinary perspective, drawing on approaches from a range of social sciences. Topics to be covered — all with a focus on Africa — include: economic growth and development narratives/theories; technological change, industrialisation and industrial policy; economic development in the context of North-South relations; neoliberalism and imperialism; international trade, global value chains and foreign direct investment; developmental states; employment, labour and economic development; commodity dependence and decarbonisation; the rise of China in Africa; and the political economy of development in some of Africa’s major economies.

Assessment is by means of one 4,000 word essay.

Indicative readings:

  • Amin, S. (1974). Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Underdevelopment. Monthly Review Press.
  • Brautigam, D. (2011). The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford University Press.
  • Carmody, P. (2016). The New Scramble for Africa. Polity Press.
  • Chang, H.J., Hauge, J. and Irfan, M. (2016). Transformative Industrial Policy for Africa. UN Economic Commission for Africa.
  • Chelwa, G. (2021). Does economics have an ‘Africa problem’? Economy and Society, 50(1), pp.78-99.
  • Cramer, C., Sender, J. and Oqubay, A. (2020). African Economic Development: Evidence, Theory, Policy. Oxford University Press.
  • Jerven, M. (2015). Africa: Why Economists Get It Wrong. Zed Books.
  • Lopes, C. (2018). Africa in Transformation: Economic Development in the Age of Doubt. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Mkandawire, T. (2001). Thinking about developmental states in Africa. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 25(3), pp.289-314.
  • Padayachee, V. (ed.) (2010). The Political Economy of Africa. Routledge.
(Optional Half) Paper 260: Food, Technology & Development

Coordinator: Dr Joeva Rock

Updated for 2021/22: Experts postulate that by 2050 the world’s population will reach 9 billion, placing a high demand on the world’s farmers and foodways. As the population grows and the climate becomes increasingly unpredictable, academics, policymakers and development practitioners are calling for new technologies and “smarter” food to address global food security, especially in the developing world. While advancements in food-related technologies such as biofortification and gene editing show promise, technology is always shaped by society, making its development and implementation not so straightforward. In this paper, we will analyze present and past efforts to develop food and agricultural technologies for the poor by situating such developments within their political, economic and social contexts.

The paper is built around an interdisciplinary set of texts – from ethnography to organizational reports – to 1) stress and situate the historical contexts of food and agricultural technologies; 2) analyze how food, agriculture and technology have long been central to global development efforts; 3) scrutinize major moments like the Green Revolution and the advent of genetic modification to assess what they have meant for development efforts; and 4) consider how things like patents, taste, and public private partnerships impact the development and use of food technologies.

Assessment is by means of one 4,000 word essay.

(Optional Half) Paper 270: Protests, Social Movements and Development

Coordinator: Dr Sarah Lockwood

Updated for 2021/22: From the sex strikes of Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, to Ghandi’s Salt March against British colonialism, the Treatment Action Campaign’s marches for access to drugs for HIV-infected South Africans, and the recent Black Lives Matter protests across the United States, protest has long been used as a tool to communicate grievances and forge social, political, and economic change. Indeed, in 2011, Time Magazine named “The Protester” as Person of the Year, emphasizing the power of protests and social movements in this regard. But what role do protests and social movements really play in development? And how can we understand and assess both their causes and consequences?

This course provides an introduction to the study of protests, social movements and political contention as they relate to development. We will explore some of the most enduring and complex questions of politics including: Why and under what conditions do people protest? What affects protest dynamics? How is social media transforming social movements? And what has been the impact of protests and social movements around the world? Cases studied will include the Arab Spring, the US Civil Rights Movement, anti-apartheid protests in South Africa, the Occupy movement, #BlackLivesMatter and many others.

Assessment is by means of one 4,000 word essay.

(Optional Half) Paper 280: Law and Politics in Authoritarian and Developing Countries

Coordinator: Prof Bill Hurst

A half paper shared with POLIS

Updated for 2021/22: How does law operate outside of industrialized liberal democracies? What assumptions do most scholars bring to the table when analyzing legal systems beyond the field’s traditional rich Western democratic core that should be addressed or jettisoned? In particular, is a Rule of Law framework most appropriate for making sense of law and politics in most of the world? If not, what might be a better replacement? This paper begins by addressing the competing perspectives of what we might call a “classical” rule of law and the political exigency of sovereignty. We will then move to examine perspectives for analyzing legal politics and institutions comparatively, before delving into a variety of topics and debates rooted in scholarship on actual legal systems around the world. By the end of the term, all students should have a thorough grounding in the literature on comparative legal politics as it relates to authoritarian and developing countries, though there are, of course, numerous books and literally thousands of articles one could (and should) read beyond what we are able to cover here. Still, the intended specialist will have a solid basis to begin exploring the field in more depth, while others will leave with enough to at least be familiar with some of the most important themes and issues.

Assessment is by means of one 3,000 word essay.

(Optional Half) Paper 290: Civil Conflict, Political Violence and Development

Coordinator: Dr Sarah Lockwood

Updated for 2021/22: Armed civil conflicts are among the most devastating social phenomena in the modern world. They often have staggering death tolls, along with a significant number of other adverse consequences such as infrastructure destruction, population displacement, capital flight, and the undermining of social trust. Indeed, as Collier et al (2003) note: civil wars often function as “development in reverse,” devastating a country’s development prospects in both the short and long run.

This course examines the relationship between political violence and development, with a particular focus on the ways in which political violence affects both short and long-run development outcomes. We will seek to answer questions including: Why does political violence occur? What is the relationship between economic development and conflict? Is terrorism a successful way of bringing about political change? And can international intervention mitigate the negative effects of conflict?

Cases studied will include Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Nigeria, Yemen and Cambodia, but there will be substantial opportunities for students to bring in other countries of interest, and to develop an in-depth knowledge of these cases.

Assessment is by means of one 4,000 word essay.

(Optional Half) Paper 310: Finance and Development

Coordinator: Dr Natalya Naqvi

Updated for 2021/22: Since the 1980s, both international and domestic finance have grown by leaps and bounds and the financial sector has assumed an ever more central position in the economy. Financial globalization has created an enormous pool of liquid capital that moves freely across borders. Financialization has become a buzzword and for good reason. But does this help or hinder national economic development? Is optimal financial resource allocation best achieved via market mechanisms or is government intervention required? Is state control of finance even possible under financial globalization or are sovereign governments at the mercy of volatile cross border flows? Given its outsize importance, questions of ownership and control of the financial sector are especially important to debates over the free market versus mixed economy model and questions of economic democracy. 

Topics to be covered include international finance, external debt and development, finance and industrial policy, financial liberalisation, financial globalization and national policy autonomy, financialization, financial crisis, and microfinance.

(Optional Half) Paper 390: Migration, Human Trafficking and Development

Coordinator: Dr Saradamoyee Chatterjee

Updated for 2021/2022: This half paper critically engages in the discussion of migration, forced migration, and human trafficking from a developmental perspective. The course provides a distinctive focus on each and culminates in examining the link between these three issues. The lectures on migration discuss trends, patterns, theories (how migration and migrants are conceptualised and researched in and across different disciplines), and the migratory experiences of people from different parts of the world. The key focus is the developmental factors that influence migration, climate change-induced migration, the border control policies that both assist and restrict migration, and issues surrounding forced migration, including the refugee crisis, and forced labour. The COVID-19 induced vulnerabilities of migrant workers and refugees are also discussed. Human trafficking is examined from a developmental perspective, and the course covers the different types, approaches, and theories to study human trafficking. Some of the key questions addressed in these lectures include how human trafficking is a development issue; how migration, forced migration, and human trafficking lie along a continuum, and how the illicit traffic in human organs has a gender and ethical dimension.  

Assessment is by means of one 4,000 word essay.

Indicative Reading:

  • Arango, J (2000). Explaining migration: A critical view. UNESCO. 283-296
  • Betts, A. (2009) Forced Migration and Global Politics. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Chatterjee, S. (2017) “The Illegal Kidney Trade: Who Benefits?” The European Review of Organised Crime 4:2. 4-26
  • De Genova, N. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology. 31. 419-447
  • Gazzotti, L. (2018). From irregular migration to radicalization? Fragile borders, securitized development and the government of Moroccan youths, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 45:15. 2888- 2909
  • International Organisation of Migration (2018,2019,2020). World Migration Report. International Organisation of Migration, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Kothari, U. (2003). Staying put and staying poor? Journal of International Development. 15: 645–657.
  • Tacoli, C. (2009). Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility. Environment and urbanization21:2. 513-525.
  • UNODC (2018). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. United Nations, New York.