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Centre of Development Studies



Abstract: A system, which brought together science, technology,

industry, education and social policy, played a fundamental role in

emergence of the USSR in the global arena after WWII as an advanced

industrial and technological actor. A key goal of this research is

operationalize academic insights, related to the relationship between

science, engineering, technology and innovation in conjunction with

educational and social policy, into practical frameworks, as evident in

the success of the Soviet industrial policy. Unlike a conventional

consideration of innovation tools, as emerging from the economic

mechanisms, this paper tries to establish and understand the connection

from Science (as grasping principles of nature) to Engineering 

(application of Science) and to Technology and Innovation (making

Engineering useful for public good and/or commercial gain) in the Soviet

import substitution policy. Development of science, education and social

policy is considered in the thesis as a game-changing factor as it

replaced the practice of the technology transfer prevalent during and

after industrialisation drive of the 1930’s. A new high technological

reality of microelectronics, nuclear energy, space exploration programme

and other phenomena which emerged as a result of the sophisticated

intertwining of  science and technology as well as social policy. The

thesis aims to understand how these various policies were developed

independently and brought together to achieve specific aims of the

Soviet national development.



Chokan Laumulin is also Research Fellow of CCAF

Title: Debates over Soviet Industrial policy.
 Chokan  Laumulin